System on Module - SOM
A System-On-Module/Computer-On-Module(COM) is a type of single-board computer(SBC), a sub-type of an embedded computer system
It is also called System-on- Module as an extension of the concept of System on Chip (SoC) and lying between a full computer and a microcontroller. The design is centred around a single microprocessor with RAM, input/output controllers and all other features needed to be a functional computer on the one board. However, unlike a single-board computer, the COM module will usually lack the standard connectors for any input/output peripherals to be attached directly to the board. Instead, the wiring for these peripherals is bussed out to connectors on the board. The module will usually need to be mounted onto a carrier board (or "baseboard") which breaks the bus out to standard peripheral connectors. Some COMs also include peripheral connectors and/or can be used without a carrier. A COM/SOM solution offers a dense package computer system for use in small or specialised applications requiring low power consumption or small physical size as is needed in embedded systems. Some devices also incorporate Field Programmable Gate Arrays. The terms "Computer-on-Module" and "COM" were coined by Venture Development Corporation (Natick, MA, USA) to describe this class of embedded computer boards. The term became more notable upon industry standardisation of the COM Express format.
Single Board Computers (SBCs)
Single Board Computers (SBCs) are standard, off-the-shelf computer boards that come in various industry conforming form factors
They can deliver customised features for total solutions when integrated with expansion boards such as PC/104. SBCs are designed to work right out-of-the-box, thus optimising development time so that the final application can achieve an extremely quick time-to-market. SBCs are highly integrated with all key system interfaces and functionalities already designed into the board. This means that only application-specific I/O needs to be integrated for the complete solution. This is made easy with standard accessories and contributes to the ultimate in fast system set-up.
In recent years, the number of vendors offering online data storage for both consumers and businesses has increased dramatically
Storage techniques are currently in use more substantially for one or more business functions Design, Office, Manufacturing, Enterprise and Services. These techniques (along with storage technologies that we adopt in the future to support new usage models) accommodate storage demand growth in a cost-effective manner whilst maintaining quality of service in our virtualised, multi-tenant computing environment. Online data storage refers to the practice of storing electronic data with a third party service accessed via the Internet. It's an alternative to traditional local storage (such as disk or tape drives) and portable storage (such as optical media or flash drives). It can also be called `hosted storage,’ `internet storage‘ or `cloud storage.’ Some services store only a particular kind of data, such as photos, music or backup data, while others will allow users to store any type of file. Most of these vendors offer a small amount of storage for free with additional storage capacity available for a fee, usually paid on a monthly or annual basis. One of the biggest benefits of online storage is the ability to access data from anywhere. As the number of devices the average person uses continues to grow, syncing or transferring data among devices has become more important. Not only does it help transfer data between devices, online data storage also provides the ability to share files among different users. This is particularly helpful for business users, although it's also popular with consumers who want to share photos, videos and similar materials with their friends and family.
CNC Numeric Controllers
CNC can control the motions of the workpiece or tool, the input parameters such as feed, depth of cut, speed, the functions such as turning spindle on/off and turning coolant on/off
The applications of CNC include both machine tool as well as non-machine tool areas. In the machine tool category, CNC is widely used for lathes, drill presses, milling machines, grinding units, lasers, sheet-metal press working machines, tube bending machines etc. Highly automated machine tools such as turning centre and machining centre have been developed, which change the cutting tools automatically under CNC control. In the non-machine tool category, CNC applications include welding machines (arc and resistance), co-ordinate measuring machines, electronic assembly, tape laying and filament winding machines for composites etc. The benefits of CNC are (1) high accuracy in manufacturing, (2) short production time, (3) greater manufacturing flexibility, (4) simpler fixturing, (5) contour machining (2 to 5 -axis machining), (6) reduced human error. The drawbacks include high cost, maintenance, and the need for a skilled part programmer.
Data visualisation is the presentation of data in a pictorial or graphical format
For centuries, people have depended on visual representations such as charts and maps to understand information more easily and quickly. As more and more data is collected and analysed, decision makers at all levels welcome data visualisation software that enables them to see analytical results presented visually, find relevance among the millions of variables, communicate concepts and hypotheses to others, and even predict the future. Because of the way the human brain processes information, it is quicker for people to grasp the meaning of many data points when they are displayed in charts and graphs rather than poring over piles of spreadsheets or reading pages and pages of reports. Interactive data visualisation goes a step further by moving beyond the display of static graphics and spreadsheets to using computers and mobile devices to drill down into charts and graphs for more details, and interactively (and immediately) changing what data is seen and how it is processed. Data visualisation is the presentation of data in a pictorial or graphical format. For centuries, people have depended on visual representations such as charts and maps to understand information more easily and quickly. As more and more data is collected and analysed, decision makers at all levels welcome data visualisation software that enables them to see analytical results presented visually, find relevance among the millions of variables, communicate concepts and hypotheses to others, and even predict the future. Because of the way the human brain processes information, it is quicker for people to grasp the meaning of many data points when they are displayed in charts and graphs rather than poring over piles of spreadsheets or reading pages and pages of reports. Interactive data visualisation goes a step further by moving beyond the display of static graphics and spreadsheets to using computers and mobile devices to drill down into charts and graphs for more details, and interactively (and immediately) changing what data is seen and how it is processed.
New technologies and mezzanine standards have cast mezzanines for communication systems into complex and critical roles previously handled by other full-size boards in the system
Few embedded system applications encompass a more diverse range of frequencies, numbers of channels, data rates, signalling schemes and signal processing algorithms than communications systems. Apart from this extreme diversity, communication systems must now handle wider signal bandwidths to meet the needs of new complex modulation schemes and higher data rates to support large numbers of channels. System integrators faced with the task of delivering custom communication systems using COTS board-level products have traditionally relied on mezzanine boards, also known as daughter cards, for modular and flexible interfaces. By cutting costs and boosting performance, choosing the right mezzanine board now becomes a much more significant part of a successful system design.
Embedded computing products include embedded motherboards and SBCs in various form factors ATX, micro ATX, ITX and nano ITX
Modern computers have evolved considerably from what they once were. This is apparent in many aspects, from processor and bus speed to hard drive capacity and video/graphics capabilities. However, one less obvious evolution is the way peripheral connections have changed over the years. Once upon a time, most peripherals (including the plug/connection interface and motherboard connection) were cards. These were inserted into slots in the motherboard at the back of the computer’s case. The interface was accessible from the exterior of the case, and the card’s tabs plugged into the motherboard slot. Today, cards are still used in some instances (aftermarket graphics cards, for example), but they are no longer that common. Most peripherals have moved to an embedded format. Embedded peripherals offer several advantages both to consumers and to manufacturers, including lower production costs, less need to open the case to remove/install new cards and better ease of use. Wikipedia defines a computer peripheral as, “a device connected to a host computer, but not part of it. It expands the host’s capabilities but does not form part of the core computer architecture. It is often, but not always, partially or completely dependent on the host.”