Glossary Radiation Introduction (LC)

Display portlet menu

Glossary - radiation

As experts in high-rel market, EBV can help you to recognise the most common terms and abbreviations in the areas of AQEC and Radiation:

Absorbed Dose

 

Radiation energy absorbed per unit of material mass.

 

Alpha Particle

 

A positive charged nuclear particle (same as a helium nuclei) that is composed of two neutrons and two protons.

 

ANOVA (Analysis of Variance)

 

A mathematical procedure for testing hypothesis. ANOVA techniques are used to examine a collection of subgroups to then determine whether they all belong to one homogeneous population (single parent population).

 

ASTM

 

American Society for Testing and Materials

 

Attribute Testing

 

Quantitative test indicates the total number of devices subjected to various screening steps in a test sequence, as well as the total number of devices passing or failing these steps. Also known as lot testing.

 

Best Commercial Practices

 

This term is used to address all of the design and manufacturing techniques that are used during wafer fabrication and assembly processes, the quality assurance provisions used throughout the processing flow, and the end item testing methodologies employed by component manufacturers regardless of the product category or grade. In other words, “commercial practices” refers to the best manufacturing and quality assurance provisions that are employed by a manufacturer, regardless of the category of products (e.g., consumer, commercial/industrial, or military) that is produced.

 

Beta Particle

 

A negatively charged particle that is identical with an electron, including mass

 

Bremstrahlung (a.k.a., Braking Radiation)

 

Radiation that is created by the interaction of a Beta particle or an electron with matter. This results in the emission of electromagnetic radiation, such as photon or x-rays.

 

Chromosphere

 

The lower level of the solar atmosphere between the photosphere and the corona.

 

CID

 

Commercial Item Description

 

Commercial Products

 

Products that are not exclusively developed for large volume commercial customers or military applications and are being produced and sold to the open market and/or general public. These products are typically designed and verified for operations over the specific electrical envelope in room-temperature applications. These products typically have a short life cycle and are almost exclusively offered in plastic packaging technology.

 

Complementary Bipolar IC Process

 

A bipolar process that uses only vertically designed PNP and NPN transistors fabricated with matched characteristics, such as gain, breakdown voltage, current drive, and frequency responses.

 

Corona

 

The uppermost level of the solar atmosphere, characterized by low densities and high temperatures (>1.0E+06°K).

 

Cosmic Rays

 

Energetic heavy ions that include all ions in the Periodic Table. Interaction of this environment with material results in the generation of secondary radiation, including ionization and neutron.

 

COTS

 

Commercial-Off-the-Shelf

 

Curie

 

A unit of radioactivity defined as that undergoing 3.7E10 disintegrations per second.

 

Di-Vacancy

 

This point defect occurs when two vacancies are located side by side in the crystal lattice.

 

Displacement Damage

 

The damage to the bulk structure of a semiconductor device caused by the impact of energetic neutrons and/or protons. This effect can be engendered by either a nuclear weapon detonation (neutrons) or solar activity (neutrons and protons). The result of this irradiation is usually either device performance degradation or failure.

 

Dose

 

A measure of energy deposited per unit. The unit of dose can be rad or Gray.

 

Dose Rate (Transient Testing)

 

The amount of ionizing radiation which an object would receive per unit of time. High Dose Rates: For example, greater than 10 rad(Si)/s. Low Dose Rates: For example, less than 0.1 rad(Si)/s

 

Dose Rate Survivability

 

The highest level of dose rate that a device can incur without permanent damage such as device latchup or by burnout of the device junction or metallization.

 

Dose Rate Upset

 

A momentary disruption of a device caused by a high intensity pulse of ionizing radiation. This temporary disruption can result in a change of stored data, a change of operating state, or a transient output signal that is large enough to have an effect on other circuits.

 

DRAM

 

Dynamic Random Access Memory

 

DSSC (Defense Supply Center, Columbus)

 

The government agency which controls the specifications surrounding military electronics.

 

EIA

 

Electronic Industries Alliance

 

Electron

 

An atomic particle with a negative electric charge of -1.6E-19 Coulomb and a mass of 9.1E-31 kg.

 

EMI (Electromagnetic Interference)

 

Any electrical phenomenon where electric and magnetic field energies combine to create noise or interference on electrical signals, i.e., electrostatic discharge.

 

Endo-atmospheric

 

Within the atmosphere. An important factor for the nuclear weapon environment. The total dose from a nuclear weapon is delivered in about 10 seconds; the majority of the dose is accumulated in microseconds. Some annealing may occur.

 

ESA

 

European Space Agency

 

ESD

 

Electrostatic discharge

 

Exo-atmospheric

 

Outside the atmosphere. An important factor for the nuclear weapon environment. The total dose from a nuclear weapon is delivered in microseconds. Minimal time is provided for annealing.

 

Faculae

 

Bright regions in the photosphere associated with sunspots.

 

Fission

 

The splitting of a heavy nucleus into two fragments, or fission products. Fission is accompanied by the emission of neutrons and the release of energy.

 

Fluence

 

The number of particles crossing per unit area from either side. Another definition is that fluence is the flux integrated over time.

 

Flux

 

The transfer of energy or particles per unit of time across a unit area from either side.

 

Functional Failure

 

The point at which the device can no longer operate.

 

Fusion

 

The process by which nuclei of light elements, especially the hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium, combine to form the nucleus of a heavier element with a substantial exothermic release of energy.

 

GaAs

 

Gallium Arsenide

 

Galactic Cosmic Rays

 

Primarily cosmic rays that originate outside of the Solar System. These cosmic rays provide a continuous, low flux component of the space radiation environment and consist of 85% protons, 14% alpha particles, and 1% heavier nuclei with energies extending up to about 1GeV.

 

Gamma Rays

 

Pure electromagnetic energy traveling through space at the speed of light. Also referred to as photons. A Gamma Ray has no electrical charge or mass. These rays are electromagnetic and have very short wave lengths with discrete and definite energies. The gamma rays are lightly ionizing and highly penetrating, leaving no radioactivity in the irradiated material.

 

Geostationary Orbit

 

A circular equatorial orbit that has a period of 24 hours and co-rotates with the Earth. An object positioned in this orbit appears to be stationary to an Earth observer since it matches the Earth’s rotational velocity.

 

Geosynchronous Orbit

 

A low inclination orbit in which the satellite’s orbital velocity is matched to rotational velocity of the planet. The orbit is generally slightly elliptical, but maintains a period of 24 hours. A satellite in this orbit would appear to move slightly to the Earth observer since the orbit is not circular.

 

Gray (Gy)

 

The SI unit for absorbed dose (total dose, total ionizing dose) in the field of radiation dosimetry. 1 Gy (x) = 1 J/kg 1 Gy (x) = 100 rad (x) (x) = specific material of interest, i.e., Gy (Si) or Gy (GaAs)

 

IC

 

Integrated Circuit

 

IMF (Interplanetary Magnetic Field)

 

The magnetic field carried with the solar wind.

 

INR (Initial Nuclear Radiation)

 

Radiation that arrives at the system within one minute.

 

Interstitial

 

This point defect occurs when an atom leaves its regular site in a crystal and takes a position between established atom sites that is a normal vacant void within the crystal lattice.

 

Ionizing Radiation

 

Electromagnetic radiation (gamma rays or x-rays) or particle radiation (proton, electron, neutron, etc.) that is capable of producing ions in its passage through matter.

 

Ionosphere

 

A region of charged particles in a planet’s upper atmosphere; the part of the Earth’s atmosphere beginning at an altitude of about 25 miles and extending outward 250 miles or more.

 

JAN (Joint Army Navy)

 

Military standard

 

JEDEC

 

Joint Electronic Devices Engineering Council

 

Latchup

 

A catastrophic failure that causes an electronic device to generate a low impedance path between two or more voltage sources or a high current state that results in a loss of device functionality. The latchup is generated by a parasitic Silicon-Controlled-Rectifier (SCR) structure in an integrated circuit (IC) that becomes energized by voltage overstressing, is radiation induced, or is attributable to other causes.

 

LET (Linear Energy Transfer)

 

Restricted collision stopping power. LET is the mean energy that is lost by a charged particle in electronic collisions per unit length of its trajectory.

 

LRU

 

Line Replaceable Unit

 

Magnetosphere

 

The region of space in which a planet’s magnetic field dominates that of the solar wind.

 

Magnetotail

 

The portion of a planetary magnetosphere which is pushed away from the Sun by the solar wind.

 

Military Products

 

These products are typically available from the open market and are sold primarily to military customers. Electrical performance characteristics are specified and verified for operations in harsh environmentalapplications (i.e., -55°C to +125°C). These products are verified for long-term operations and have been offered primarily in hermetic packages.

 

Muon

 

A charged particle (exists in either positive or negative form and carries one electric charge of ± 1.6 x 10-19 C). Also known as “heavy electron”. It has a mass about 207 times the mass of an electron.

 

NASA

 

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

 

Neutrino

 

A fundamental particle supposedly produced in massive numbers by the nuclear reactions in stars. They are difficult to detect since the vast majority of them pass completely through the Earth without interacting.

 

Neutron

 

One of the basic particles of the atomic nucleus. It has no charge and has a rest mass of 1.67E-27 kg. The neutron is difficult to stop. The capture of a neutron may result in the emission of a gamma ray.

 

NSEE

 

Neutron Single Event Effects

 

NSEL

 

Neutron Single Event Latchup

 

NSEU

 

Neutron Single Event Upset

 

NWE

 

Nuclear Weapons Effects

 

Parametric Failure

 

The point at which the device under test goes out of defined specification limits.

 

Parametric Testing

 

The measurement of individual variables or parameters. Values are recorded and are traceable to individual devices. Parametric testing contrasted with attribute or lot testing.

 

Phonons

 

A quanta of energy of the normal modes of a crystal lattice or an elastic continuum. The concept of phonons refers to the quantization of energy content of each oscillator, not to the nature of the oscillator itself. The concept of the phonon is closely analogous to that of the photon in electrodynamics.

 

Photon

 

A quantum of electromagnetic energy such as light, radio waves, etc. Photons can also be gamma rays (energies >250keV) or x-rays (energies of 1keV to <250kev). At 250keV, the interaction between the photon and the target material changes from a photoelectric effect to the Compton Scattering Effect in Si.

 

Photosphere

 

The visible surface of the Sun; sunspots and faculae are observed in the photosphere.

 

Pion

 

A fundamental particle that can be positive, negative, or neutral that has a mass 270 times that of an electron.

 

PIPL

 

Post-Irradiation Parametric Limit

 

Prompt Dose

 

The radiation dose received from the initial radiation pulse from a nuclear explosion.

 

Proton

 

One of the basic particles of the atomic nucleus (the other is the neutron). The proton has a charge of +1.6E-19 Coulomb and has a rest mass of 1836 times greater than an electron.

 

QML

 

Qualified Manufacturers’ List

 

Qualification

 

A process in advance of, and independent of, an acquisition by which a manufacturer’s or distributor’s products are examined, tested, and approved to determine conformance with requirements of a specification.

 

Rad

 

A basic unit of absorbed dose for ionized radiation. The rad represents the absorption of 100 ergs of energy per gram of targeted material specified. In the case of integrated circuits, the specified material is generally silicon (Si) or SiO2.

 

Radiation Hardness Assurance (RHA)

 

The procedures used to ensure that the radiation hardness capability of a semiconductor device is in compliance with the product specifications.

 

Radiation Hardness Assurance (RHA) Categories

 

Designates guaranteed limits up to: o M = 3 krad(Si) o D = 10 krad(Si) o P = 30 krad(Si) o L = 50 krad(Si) o R = 100 krad(Si) o F = 300 krad(Si) o G = 500 krad(Si) o H = 1 Mrad(Si)

 

Radiation Hardness Assured Capability Limit (RHACL)

 

Radiation Hardness Assured Capability Limit (RHACL): This is the minimum radiation level that the manufacturer guarantees that a semiconductor device can be exposed to and still meet parametric specifications. It is typically based on data obtained from exposing devices or test structures to radiation in accordance with MIL STD-883 or MIL-I-38535.

 

Radioactivity

 

Disintegration of the nuclei of the atoms of certain elements during which gamma rays and elementary particles are emitted.

 

Rebound Effect (a.k.a., Super-Recovery)

 

After irradiation, recovery of a MOSFET’s VTH past its initial value.

 

REM [Roentgen Equivalent (in) Man]

 

Total ionizing dose unit

 

Roentgen

 

Roentgen: The quantity of x-ray or gamma ray ionizing radiation that will produce one electrostatic unit (ESU) of ions in one cm3 of dry air (at standard temperature and pressure) which has a total charge of 3.33E-10 Coulomb. One roentgen equals 0.865 rad.

 

SCD (Source Control Drawing)

 

SCDs can be used to specify radiation testing to either a Level S or a Level B process flow. SCDs are also used to define tighter radiation-assurance specifications than are available via the RHA’s broader categories.

 

SEC

 

Standard Evaluation Circuit

 

SEE (Single Event Effects )

 

The radiation response of a semiconductor caused by the impact of galactic cosmic rays, solar-enhanced particles, and/or energetic neutrons and protons. Responses can include upset (non-destructive, and latchup or gate-rupture (destructive).

 

SEL (Single Event Latchup)

 

A loss of device functionality due to a single event. It may be manifested by a high current density state that may cause permanent damage to the device. If permanent damage is not sustained, power cycling of the device (off and back on) is necessary to restore normal operations. SEL is the result of a parasitic SCR structure in an IC becoming energized by an ion strike.

 

SEP (Single Event Phenomena)

 

The effects caused by the passage of an alpha particle, proton, or cosmic ray (heavy ion). These effects include upset, latchup, funnel effect, ion shunting, etc.

 

SEU (Single Event Upset)

 

A “soft error”, change of logic state, or a bit flip caused by alpha particles or cosmic rays as they pass through a device.

 

SI

 

International System of Units

 

Si

 

Silicon

 

SID

 

Selected Item Drawing

 

SiO2

 

Silicon dioxide

 

SMD

 

Standard Microcircuit Drawing

 

Solar Cosmic Rays

 

In addition to producing an intense burst of UV (ultra-violet) and x-rays, solar flares accelerate solar material to high velocities. These solar particles are similar to galactic cosmic rays; but owing to their different origin, are not identical in composition.

 

Solar Flares

 

Solar eruptions produce energetic protons with a minor contribution of alpha particles, heavy ions, and electrons. Energies range to hundreds of MeV.

 

Solar Wind

 

A tenuous flow of gas and energetic charged particles, mostly protons and electrons – plasma – which stream from the Sun. Typical solar wind velocities are near 350 kilometers per second.

 

SOS

 

Silicon-on-Saphire

 

SRAM

 

Static Random Access Memory

 

Statistics

 

A subsection of the science of mathematics concerned with the organization, collection, analysis, interprelation, and presentation of data.

 

Step-Stress Radiation Approach

 

A series of discrete cumulative irradiations with measurements made after each irradiation increment.

 

Sunspot

 

An area seen as a dark spot on the photosphere of the Sun. Sunspots are concentrations of magnetic flux, typically occurring in bipolar clusters or groups. They appear dark because they are cooler than the surrounding photosphere.

 

TDE

 

Time Dependent Effect

 

Terrestrial Cosmic Rays

 

These constitute the primary cosmic radiation which penetrates the Earth’s atmosphere. They are rapidly transformed by interactions that producea cascade of secondary radiation.

 

TID

 

Total Ionizing Dose

 

Total Dose

 

The total accumulated amount of absorbed ionizing radiation specified at a particular dose rate exposureat +25°C.

 

Total Ionizing Dose Effect

 

The response of a semiconductor device to ionizing radiation that can occur due to the neutron x-ray and gamma emanations of a nuclear weapon or due to electrons/protons trapped in the Earth’s magneto- sphere, occurring in space, or surroundingother planets. The effects of ionizing radiation include device degradation and/or failure.

 

Trapped Radiation

 

This consists of a broad spectrum of energetic charged particles that are trapped in the Earth’s magnetic field, thus forming the radiation belts.

 

TRB

 

Technology Review Board

 

TREE

 

Transient Radiation Effects (on) Electronics

 

Vacancy

 

This is a point defect that results when anatom is removed from its lattice site and moved to thesurface of the crystal. Also known as a Schottky Defect.

 

Van Allen Belts

 

Radiation belts surrounding the Earth. Discovered by American physicist James Van Allen, using an instrument aboard the first successful American satellite,Explorer I.

 

Variables Testing

 

See Parametric Testing.

 

X-Rays

 

These are short-wavelength photons or electromagnetic radiation. An x-ray originates from electronic shells or charged particle collisions. X-rays have energies that are less than 250keV.