Based on the Ishikawa diagram analysis the 5 Whys is a questions-asking method used to explore the cause/effect relationships underlying a particular problem. Ultimately, the goal of applying the 5 Whys method is todetermine a root cause of a defect or problem. Ishikawa Diagrams might be known as: Pareto, fishbone diagrams, cause-and-effect diagrams orFishikawa
refers to a quality improvement and business strategy concept started by Motorola in the United States in 1987. In statistical terms, 6-Sigma is the abbreviated form of 6 standard deviations from the mean, which mathematically translates to about 2 defects per billion. Thus, strictly speaking, your process is said to have achieved 6-sigma if it is producing no more than 2 defects per billion parts produced. Nowadays replaced by (or part of) Zero defect tolerance strategies.
“ AutomobileBitserielleSchnittstelle“ VW (Toshiba/ TEG) -Busstandard (replaced by CAN)
only ‚discrete‘ semiconductor parts f.ex.: Transistors, Diodes...
only for passive and E-Mech. parts f.ex.: Capacitors / Resistors and some sensors
Specification how to qualify electronic parts
An automotive quality standard that outlines the stress test for IC qualification in automobiles. Altera is an active member of the AEC council, which governs this standard.
Automotive System Architecture consortium was established to define an open standard for automotive E/E architecture. It serves as a basic infrastructure for the management of functions within both future applications and standard software modules.
Car Area Network by Bosch (Intel / NXP) max 1Mbaud ISO 11898-1:2003 Road vehicles — Part 1: Data link layer and physical signallingISO 11898-2:2003 Road vehicles — Part 2: High-speed medium access unitISO 11898-3:2006 Road vehicles — Part 3: Low-speed, fault-tolerant, medium dependent interfaceISO 11898-4:2004 Road vehicles — Part 4: Time-triggered communicationISO 11898-5:2007 Road vehicles — Part 5: High-speed medium access unit with low-power modeISO/NP 11898-6 Road vehicles — Part 6: High-speed medium access unit with selective wake-up functionality “Partional Networking”
Commercial vehicle operations (CVO)
CVO is the application of intelligent transportation system technology to commercial vehicles.
End of Life Vehicle The initial Directive 2000/53/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 18 September 2000 regulates the recycling of motor vehicles within the European Union (EU).(following regulations see GADSL)
An in-vehicle network protocol designed for high-speed multimedia applications that require large amounts of information to be moved quickly on a vehicle. Previously known as IDB-M, IDB-1394 is built on the IEEE-1394 standard.
An in-vehicle network defined in the SAE J2366 - ITS data bus specifications series. IDB-C is based on CAN 2.0B (controller area network) silicon and physical layer, specifically on SAE J2284 - high-speed CAN.
IEC61508“This International Standard covers those aspects to be considered when electrical/electronic/programmable electronic (E/E/PE) systems are used to carry out safety functions. A major objective of this standard is to facilitate the development of application sector international standards [ … ] A dual objective of this standard is to enable the development of E/E/PE safety-related systems where application sector international standards do not exist.” -> applicable for all vehicles esp. those >3,5 t
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.; a professional society and standards-making body.
International Standards Organization.
Reunification of all requirements in a quality management system of European and American automobile industry. Valid only for production processes. (replaces the QS9000).*(ISO – International Standardization Organization TS- Technical Specification)
or known as K&L-Line (ISO 9141-2 or ISO14230-4) Lowspeed 1 or 2 wire communication interface used for OBD and OBDII
ISO 11783 (or ISO Bus or ISOBUS) is a communication protocol for the agriculture industry based on the SAE J1939 protocol (which includes CANbus) . It is managed by the ISOBUS group in VDMA
(Spice- SoftwareProcess Improvement and Capability Determination)Q-System for software development
“ISO 26262 is intended to be applied to safety-related systems that include one or more E/E systems and that are installed in series production passenger cars with a max gross weight up to 3,5 t.[…]”
Delco / GM / Ford –Bussystem (US Standard - new applications addressed with CAN)
Japan Automotive Software Platform Architecture consortium was created by Japanese OEMs to define an open architectural platform, whereby making it easier for all the suppliers and OEMs to develop the next-generation system architecture.
a Japanese term that basically translates to 'continuous improvement' or 'change to become good', is a management concept originated by the Japanese in order to continuously effect incremental changes for the better, involving everybody within the organization from workers to managers. Kaizen is aimed at producing more and more value with less and less wastes (higher efficiency), attaining better working environment, and developing stable processes by standardization.
Media oriented system transport (MOST)
A versatile, high-performance and low-cost multimedia network technology based on synchronous data communication. It is ideal for multimedia applications such as audio, video, navigation, and communication in the automotive sector.
Origin equipment manufacturer = Car maker = Car Manufacturer
Automotive Alliance - enable wide scale adoption of Ethernet-based automotive connectivity, establish industry standards for Ethernet connectivity over single pair, unshielded cable and enable the migration from multiple closed applications to an open, scalable Ethernet-based network.
An operating system, communication and network management specification developed by automotive industry companies. OSEK/VDX was created as a joint project in the German and French automotive industry aimed at an industry standard for an open-ended architecture for distributed control units in vehicles.
Japanese trial of a standard
Mistake proofing is a quality management concept developed by a Matsushita manufacturing engineer to prevent human errors from occurring in the production line.Poka yoke (pronounced “poh-kahyoh-kay”) comes from two Japanese words – “yokeru” which means “to avoid”, and “poka” which means “inadvertent errors. The main objective of poke yoke is to achieve zero defects
Level 1 Part Submission Warrant (PSW) only. Level 2 PSW with product samples and other items requested. Level 3 PSW with product samples and complete supporting data. -> Most used format (w/o NDA) Level 4 PSW and other items requested.Level 5 PSW with product samples and complete supporting data available for review at the manufacturer.
Production part approval process (PPAP)
PPAP, 3rd edition, Automotive Industry Action Group (AIAG) is one of the key requirements for the automotive industry. A PPAP document outlines all the manufacturing quality processes that an integrated circuit (IC) manufacturer undertakes for a specific device.
Peripheral Sensor Interface 5 - used forsatelite sensorsf.ex acceleration Sensors in Airbag systems
Part Submission Warrant Beside the testing of the sampled parts the PSW is the basic document for the initial sampling procedure. The PSW is equal to a commitment from customer to release the product ant the intention to use it. Comment: if a customer accepts the sampling with sending back the PSW we (the supplier) needs to confirm every change in the process.(ACN / PCN / PDN must be sent out in time)
Society of Automotive Engineers.
Single Edge Nibble Transmission - Communication protocol for point to point direct comunications with sensors e.q. Hall effects
Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)
A one-stop resource for technical information and expertise used in designing, building, maintaining and operating self-propelled vehicles for use on land or sea, in air or space.
4D could be a proper format for Interrim Reports or Final Reports whenever no PCA's could be applied
Supplier (Ranked by 1(direct System supplier) / 2 (indirect or subsystem supplier) / 3 (development company or module manufacturer))
Total Productive Maintenance is a maintenance process developed for improving productivity by making processes more reliable and less wasteful
Total Quality Management TQM tries to improve quality by ensuring conformance to internal requirements, while Six Sigma focuses on improving quality by reducing the number of defects and impurities
ISO/TS 16949:2002 is an ISO technical specification, which aligns existing American (QS-9000), German (VDA6.1), French (EAQF), and Italian (AVSQ) automotive quality systems standards within the global automotive industry, with the aim of eliminating the need for multiple certifications to satisfy multiple customer requirements.
Material content data can be captured by forming cross-company product groups with typical values. These material data sheets, so-called umbrella specifications, greatly simplify the declaration without any noticeable loss of accuracy. only Infineon and NXP working on this level using Umbrella Specs as MCDS
V-Methode Analysis / Synthesis
Method for fast turnaround development of automotive systems
Vehicle Area Network PSA / Renault – Bus standard (replaced by CAN)
"Verband der Deutschen Automobilindustrie" Equivalent to AEC the German Council for standardization of automotive procedures / processes and Market requirements