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Glossary Functional Safety Introduction (LC)

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Glossary - functional safety

As experts in automotive market, EBV can help you to recognise the most common terms and abbreviations in the areas of AEC, Functional safety and Telematics:

"Smart" Air Bag


System that intelligently adjusts the vehicle restraints to optimize occupant protection.


A/D (also ADC)


Analog-to-Digital converter; an electronic circuit or device that converts an analog input signal into a digital signal.




Air/Fuel ratio.




Antilock Braking System; keeps the tires from locking while braking; the car can still be handled without losing control.




In a computer, the basic work register of the computer. In hydraulics or pneumatics, a device for storing pressurized fluid.


Active noise control (ANC)


To eliminate air intake noise in the engine, a loudspeaker installed in the intake system is used to generate a sound wave of the same amplitude but opposite phase. (It cancels out the unpleasant sound.)




A device which performs a mechanical action in response to an input signal, which may be either electric or fluidic.


Air Induction System


The components through which combustion air is induced into the engine.


Antilock braking system (ABS)


Keeps the tires from locking while braking. The car can still be handled without losing control.




High Speed low voltage data transmission (point to point - physical Layer)




AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture (AUTOSAR) – association for software standardization (Based on the ISO Layer Model)




Automated Vehicle Classification; used in CVO, AVC electronically identifies a vehicle's type. Using this system decreases the amount of time required at border crossings by reducing the amount of paperwork drivers have to process.




Childseat Presence Orientation Detection (CPOD); pressure sensitive foil with integrated antenna and resonators in the childseat to keep the airbag from firing with full capacity if necessary.


BroadR-Reach ®


BroadR-Reach (Broadcom Registred Trademerk) enables full-duplex operation over a single twisted pair, so that Ethernet and IP services can now be deployed at 100Mbps over installed telephone wiring - even on cbeling up to 500 m Additionally, BroadR-Reach is compatible with Power over Ethernet, greatly expanding the range of applications for POE appliances. 




A material which speeds up or stimulates a chemical reaction without being significantly chemically altered by the reaction.


Catalytic Converter


A device which enhances certain chemical reactions reducing the levels of undesirable exhaust gases from an engine.


Closed-Loop Fuel Control


In an engine, a mode where input air/fuel ratio is controlled by using an exhaust oxygen sensor as the input reference.


Combinational Logic


Logic circuits whose outputs depend only on the present logic inputs.


Comparator, Analog


An electronic device that compares the voltages applied to its inputs.


Control Variable


The inputs and outputs which a control system manipulates and measures to keep proper control.


Controller area network (CAN)


A serial bus system especially suited for networking "intelligent" devices as well as sensors and actuators within a system or sub-system. CAN2.0A is an 11-bit identifier; CAN2.0B is a 29-bit identifier.




WEB-Based platforms for data exchange based on different customer’s ERP system




A transistor operating mode where very little current flows between the collector and emitter.


D/A (also DAC)


Digital-to-Analog Converter; a device that produces a voltage which is proportional to the digit input number.




Opical Bus system – used formidspeed data transmission in audio systems – replaced by Mostand Most 2


Damping Coefficient


A parameter that affects a system's time response by controlling the rate at which energy can be added to or removed from the system.


Database standards task group


A subcommittee of the Society of Automotive Engineers' (SAE's) intelligent transportation systems (ITS) division for the purpose of developing standards for digital street map databases, including standardization of terms and the use of that nomenclature to facilitate evaluation and comparison of the completeness and content level of various databases.




Demultiplexer, a type of electronic switch used to select one of several output lines.


Digital audio broadcast (DAB)


A digital technology offering considerable advantages over today's FM radio, both to listeners and broadcasters. The most obvious benefit to listeners is DAB's ability to deliver CD-quality stereo sound robustly and reliably, even to mobile receivers, using only a simple rod antenna. FM reception is often distorted or interrupted by multi-path interference in moving vehicles in particular, as reflections from hills and buildings arrive out of phase with the main signal. By contrast, the DAB receiver's powerful processor use these "shadows" to reinforce the main signal.


Digital audio radio (DAR)


Digital audio broadcast (DAB) receiver.


Digital transmission control protection (DTCP)


A digital rights management technology. The DTCP standard was issued by the Digital Transmission Licensing Administrator (DTLA) to protect multimedia distribution in the digital home.




A device that indicates in human readable form the result of a measurement of some variable.




The combination of mechanisms connecting the engine to the driven wheels, typically the transmission, driveshaft, and differential in a rear wheel driven vehicle.




Distributed System Interface – same description as PSI5




In an engine, the time allowed for current to build in the primary circuit of the ignition coil for each spark generation.




A device used to place a load on an engine and measure its performance.




Electronic Control Unit.




Electronic Exhaust Gas Recirculation; a procedure in which a portion of exhaust is introduced into the intake of an engine primarily for NOx reduction.




Exhaust Gas Oxygen; the concentration of oxygen in the exhaust of an engine. An EGO sensor (also O2 sensor, or oxygen sensor) is used in closed-loop fuel control systems to indicate rich or lean A/F.


Electronic control unit (ECU)


The main computer in a car that controls all facets of the engine.


Electronic feedback carburetor


A fuel-metering device in which the air to fuel ratio is controlled by continual variations of the metering rod position or air bypass modulation in response to an electronic control signal.


Electronic throttle control (ETC)


An acceleration pedal controls the throttle by means of a computer-controlled stepping motor in lieu of a conventional linkage from pedal to throttle.


Electronic valve timing (EVT)


A system where the opening and closing times and cylinder valves' lift are controlled by computer.


Engine Calibration


The values for all controllable functions including air/fuel, spark advance and EGR at specified operating conditions.


Engine Crankshaft Position


The angular position of the crankshaft relative to a reference point.


Engine Mapping


A procedure of experimentally determining the performance of an engine at selected operating points and recording the results.


Equivalence Ratio


Actual air/fuel ratio divided by the air/fuel ratio at stoichiometry.


Ethernet (Automotive)


See Broad-R




1394B (or Fire Wire 800 or US standard AUTO1394) is a wire based physical Layer for media data




stands for Failure in Time. The Fit rate describes the possible failure rate of components.The unit FIT is indicating the numbers of components, which will fail in 109 hours




A communication system that will support the needs of future in-car control applications.


Frequency Response


A graph of a system's response to a different frequency input signals.


Fuel Injector (Electronic)


An electro-mechanical device that precisely meters fuel into an internal combustion engine based on a time electronic input.


Fuel injector (electronic)


An electro-mechanical device that precisely meters fuel into an internal combustion engine based on a time electronic input.


Fuel Pressure Regulator


Maintains fuel pressure to fuel injector to help insure proper quantity is delivered to engine.




The ratio of a system's output magnitude to its input magnitude.




GASDL stands fof Global Automotive Declarable Substances List - is a common list of declarable substances banned by the automotive industry based on national regulations / directives – and replaces ILRS (international list of reportable substances) – GASDL is agreed by BMW, DaimlerChrysler, Porsche, Fiat, Ford, General Motors, Toyota, VW and Volvo (all others have own requirements).




A device that allows consumer products to interface with the communication system in vehicles, while protecting the vehicle's system from defective devices or inappropriate messages.




Integrated Air Fuel System/Integrated Air Fuel Module; complete intake manifold system that includes all fuel and air delivery requirements and many final dress items.


IDB ITS data bus


A medium-speed multiplexed bus intended for command and control of devices in vehicles.


Ignition Timing


The time of occurrence of ignition measured in degrees of crankshaft rotation relative to TDC.




stands for Integrated Material Data System. IMDS is an open archive database system (owned by HP) which is for to exchange and manage the chemical content of cars. Car manufacturers can consolidate using the IMDS single data the complete chemical content and especially for hazardous substances in accordance to the ELV directive and GASDL




Theft-deterrent system that uses a transponder inside the ignition key to electronically enable an operational control unit in the vehicle to start the car.




A magnetic device that stores energy in a magnetic field produced by flowing current.




A communication medium that employs wavelengths longer than those of visible light.




Apparatus (often electronic) which is used for measurement or control; and for display of measurements or conditions.


Integral Amplifier


A control system component whose voltage output changes at a rate proportional to its input voltage.


Integrated Circuit


A semiconductor device that contains many circuit functions on a single chip.




An efficient method to quickly request a computer's attention to a particular external event.




Intelligent Switching Unit; provides integration and functionality in the cockpit module with reduced cost, thanks to a new human-machine interface, impulse coded steering wheel command, integrated low current switches and smart key.




Intelligent Transportation System; an umbrella term, includes an advanced technology approach to traffic management; original name was IVHS.




Used for additional graphic displays as p2p Bus (even known as TWI) majorly used by Audi renewed for protocol exchange for Camera systems


Lead Term


A control system component that anticipates future inputs based on the current signal trend.




Light-Emitting Diode.


Limit Cycle


A mode of control system operation in which the controlled variable cycles between extreme limits with the average near the desired value.




Local Interface Network -Lowcost /Lowspeed automotive serial standard (MasterSlave- BUS)


Linear Region


A transistor operating mode where the collector current is proportional to the base current.


Local interconnect network (LIN)


A new low-cost serial communication system intended to be used for distributed electronic systems in vehicles, which complements the existing portfolio of automotive multiplex networks.


Logic Circuits


Digital electronic circuits that perform logical operations such as NOT, AND, OR, and combinations of these.


Lookup Table


A table in computer memory that is used to convert an important value into a related value from the table.




Manifold Absolute Pressure; the absolute pressure in the intake manifold of an engine.


Mass Air Flow Sensor


A device mounted in the engines air induction system that provides an electrical signal representing the instantaneous rate of mass air flow.




Material Content Data Sheet (IMDS / Reach)




The introduction of electronic controls into mechanical components.




The introduction of electronic controls into mechanical components.




Media Oriented Systems Transport – (Bus system (physical layer used for video and audio Data transmission- the most used standards are MOST 50 (wire based) MOST25 or MOST 150 (optical link)




stands for Mean Time Between Failure. MTBF is the average or predicted elapse time between to potential failures.Example for a machine: After failure mode a component will repaired - the time to the next failure of this machine is the MTBF of it.




A technology that enables more than one signal to be transmitted on the same wire between two or more electronic modules. The advantage of multiplexing is that it reduces wiring in the vehicles, thus reducing cost, weight, and package size of the wire harness.




Multiplexer; a type of electronic switch used to select one of several input lines.




Noise and Vibration Harshness.




On board diagnostic interface – replaced by ODX




On board diagnostic x-change


Open-Loop Fuel Control


A mode where engine input air/fuel ratio is controlled by measuring the mass of input air and adding the proper mass of fuel to obtain a desired ratio.


Operational Amplifier


A standard analog circuit component with two inputs, one output and a very high voltage gain.


Optimal Damping


The damping which produces the very best time response.




Task oriented Operating system for automotive platforms (successor of VDX)


Related Norm: ISO 17356-3; Targeting:16/ 32 Bit Micros (followed by AutoSar)


Passenger presence detection (PPD)


A sensor system that is able to detect the presence of a passenger. Different systems are known as infrared scanning weight sensing, capacitive measurement.




An external input-output device which is connected to a computer.


Phase Shift


A measure of the delay between the time an electrical signal enters a system and the time it shows up at the output.




The smallest unit of color in a display. Frames are made up of lines and columns of pixels. The number of pixel lines in each frame expresses video resolution.


Plasma display panel (PDP)


Flat panel display using plasma electronic technology.


Radio data systems (RDS)


An information transmission system that was defined by the European Broadcasting Union.


RFID Labels (Radio-Frequency Identification)


RFID Labels can be applied or integrated into a product for the purpose of identification and tracking using radio waves. This has been a positive break through as it has improved the efficiency of inventory tracking and management.




Read Only Memory; permanent memory used to store permanent programs.




Revolutions Per Minute; the speed of rotation of the crankshaft in an engine or other rotation shaft.




An energy conversion device that measures some physical quantity and converts it to an electrical quantity.


Sequential Logic


Logic circuits whose output depends on the particular sequence of the input logic signals.


SI Engine


Abbreviation for spark ignition, internal combustion engine.


Signal Processing


The alteration of an electrical signal by electronic circuitry; used to reduce the effects of systematic and random errors.


SIR Sensor


Supplemental inflatable restraint sensor.




A condition in which the tires are sliding over the road surface rather than rolling; usually associated with braking or turning.




The ratio of the angular speed of the driving element to the angular speed of the driven element of a torque converter; also, the condition in which a driven tire loses traction so that the driving torque does not produce vehicle motion.


Smart Key


Electronically coded key used both to enter and start the vehicle.




Electronically coded key used both to enter and start the vehicle developed by Mercedes-Benz.




An electrically charged coil of insulated wire which produces a magnetic field within the coil.


Spark Advance


The number of degrees of crankshaft rotation before TDC where the spark plug is fired (see ignition timing.)


Spark Timing


The process of firing the spark plug at the proper moment to ignite the combustible mixture in the engine cylinders.




A method of calculating the inducted mass airflow of an internal-combustion engine-based MAP RPM, and mapped volumetric efficiency at a constant temperature.


Spread Spectrum


Type of radio transmission; reduces interference and jamming, and allows multiple user communications; originally developed by the military.




The theoretical air/fuel ratio for perfect combustion; it enables exactly all of the fuel to burn using exactly all of the oxygen in the air.


Supply ON


WEB-Based platforms for data exchange based on different customer’s ERP system


Tail lights


Part of the rear end of the vehicle which produces light when braking and indicating.




Throttle-Body-Fuel Injector; a fuel metering actuator in which the air/fuel ratio is controlled by injecting precisely controlled amounts of fuel into the air stream entering the intake manifold.


Throttle Angle


The angle between the throttle plate and a reference line; engine speed increases as the angle increases.




The twisting force of the crankshaft or other driving shaft.


Torque Converter


A form of fluid coupling used to transmit torque from the power plant to the rest of the drive train.




Batteryless electronic code memory which transmits and receives low frequency messages upon activation by an external electromagnetic field.




Universal Serial Bus – Well known High speed p2p data system (Master Slave)