DRAM (Dynamic random-access memory) is a type of random access semiconductor memory which is a volatile memory (meaning that its data is lost when power is turned off), and stores each bit of data in a separate tiny passive electronic component (such as capacitor) inside an integrated circuit. A DRAM usually consists of one capacitor and transistor per data bit. Each electronic component has two states of value in one bit called 0 and 1. For example a capacitor can either be charged or discharged, and these two states are generally considered as 0 and 1. The capacitor starts to discharge slowly if there is no intervention, so the data on the chip also fades with the discharge. Capacitors need to be refreshed frequently to prevent this discharge, thus an external refreshing circuit is needed to restore them to their actual charge and rewrite the data. Because of this frequent refreshing activity it is called a dynamic memory. DRAM is used for frequent access and temporary data storage, and is widely used where low-cost benefits and high-capacity memory is required. DDR (Double Data Rate) memory is the most commonly used DRAM memory and DDR4 is the latest generation of DDR. Also, LPDDR is used for applications such as mobile and embedded boards where low power is concerned.
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